The presentation of the two edited recipe collections seems further to be designed as a Une Histoire Culinaire du Moyen Age. Author: Terence Scully. Date: June 22, Publisher: Oxford International Publishers Ltd. Dba Berg Publishers. This fostered in the French the sense of a more intimate connection with pigs, a cozy vision of communality as well as of ostensible continuity with ancestral closeness to the land, and to the good things raised there.
On some, captions make this more explicit, as peasant women declare that they prefer piglets to their men, or beg spouses to grant their favorite little hogs clemency—notably in a series of cards produced by St. But might the husbands share such affection for their swine? One card fig. Upon closer examination, however, the card proves ambivalent in important ways.
Unlike postcards of peasant women with their beloved pigs, tenderness is conspicuously lacking here. However the women folk might feel about them, for the serious fellow here these pigs seem less objects of affection than commodities, less a sentimental entanglement than business as usual. But is that the whole story? While there were a number of leading postcard publishers based in Brittany at the time, like Nozais and Artaud in Nantes,  this card was produced by a major Parisian firm, E. Le Deley. In one emblematic card fig.
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This is a badly drawn but revealing illustration. Its ineptness points to an underlying malaise over changes underway at the time that were transforming venerable patterns of interrelation and interdependency with animals, so closely bound up with how food was cultivated, prepared, and consumed. The woman, her stereotypical rustic clogs perhaps a deliberately archaic touch, also wears a sort of sloppy Phrygian cap, with her blue skirt, white blouse, and red headgear emulating the French flag, casting her as a kind of peasant Marianne, a French Everywoman.
At the same time, the seemingly substantial yet visually unconvincing and practically ineffectual boundary figures a still largely hypothetical divide between humans and pigs that would materialize and solidify over the decades ahead, as the French became more and more cut off from the animals that supplied their food—including, eventually, pigs. Instead of hypothetical separation, numerous other cards take an equally fanciful but opposite tack, conjuring up scenes of hypothetical closeness.
Unlike more plausible images of pigs with peasants, these cards take swine from the farm into the drawing room, as elegant women or couples care for and play with little porkers. In another fig. While vegetarianism was gaining some ground in France at the time, out of both ethical and health concerns,  most of the French continued to eat meat, so no matter how sanitized a view of human-pig relations got served up on such cards, people could not overlook the traditional role for pigs, condemned to death to provide people food. On one card sent from Lyon to London in , for example, the image and inscription are revealingly at odds fig.
A young woman in an elegant silk dress and long white gloves cuddles with a bonneted pig on her lap. Many cards depict pigs as humans, whether in human dress from tutu to top hat, depending upon the context , or doing human things ice skating, reading, riding bikes or cars, smoking pipes, sharing a four-poster bed, etc. Others, however, construe the identification conversely, casting humans as pigs by implication.
One particularly suggestive example fig.
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Reaching back in time and across cultures, further contradictions abound in our age-old love-hate relationship with pigs: even before their increasingly intense domestication during the nineteenth century, pigs could be seen as at once tender companions and a thrifty, dependable, cherished food source. The incredibly polyvalent pig has been regarded as the most valuable and vilest of animals, the object of lavish, blanket praise for its delicious, snout to tail utility, and of endless scorn and suspicion for its supposed moral shortcomings.
Across the centuries, representations have ranged wildly from praise to blame, depicting pigs as the best and worst of creatures, their embodiment of all virtues and vices underscoring their real and perceived proximity to humans. Pigs into Frenchmen  Across the territory that has become modern France, traditional pork production occupied a key place within a whole complex of time-honored means for supplying food, like local raising, slaughtering, processing, and consumption of livestock, in a tightly-knit web of community, custom, and belief.
The broad lines of these practices long remained constant.
Whether in Brittany, Alsace, Auvergne, or Languedoc, people followed much the same calendar for raising and harvesting their pigs. They used blood collected from the sacrifice to make boudins, consuming some of the meat fresh while preserving the rest through salting and smoking, rendering the all-important lard, and so forth, utilizing the whole hog for culinary and so many other practical purposes, from medicine to art, with bristles used for paintbrushes or bladders for storing paint.
There were, however, innumerable local variations in husbandry techniques, recipes, terminology, and folklore. Accordingly, pig postcards offer a cornucopia of terroir and tradition, getting at the cultural and culinary specificity of distinct, diverse French regions. There are market scenes galore, and in some fig. Did you also teach it to read and write?
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So much a part of the traditional French cultural and gastronomic landscape, pigs also permeated the physical landscape, as evidenced by abundant pig-related place names across France. In contrast to a by-then established tradition of French gastronomic maps,  which highlight different characteristic food products for each region mustard for Meaux, ham for Bayonne, champagne for Reims, etc. Whatever else might differentiate French regions, culturally and gastronomically, they share this common connection to swine.
Many other postcards associate not just pigs but also specific pork specialties with local monuments. Backward-looking in its honoring of local historical, architectural, and especially culinary traditions, the card is also resolutely forward-looking in its use of stylish art nouveau lettering and its good-natured homage to the contemporary postcard craze.
Here the oversized pied de cochon is suspended, gondola-like, from a looming dirigible, whose shape is formed largely by a postcard collage of local views, like a giant, airborne postcard display. Indeed the composition offers a mise en abyme of postcard production, distribution, and circulation. The well-ordered rows of cards on the dirigible emulate their presentation in racks at newsstands or train stations. It suggests much about what aviation would bring in the years ahead, from aerial postcard photography, to airmail, to air transport of foodstuffs, at a time when developments like these were either not yet common, or had not yet evolved, but when their effects and impact could already be imagined.
Keith Busby et Norris J. Lacy, Amsterdam, Rodopi Faux Titre, 83 , , p. Romain Benini et Christine Silvi, Styles, genre, auteurs , 16, , p. Reno, Christine M. Franco Simone, J. Response to James C. Rice, J. Deborah Sinnreich-Levi et Ian S. Laurie, Detroit, Gale, , p. Schaefer, L. Semple, Benjamin M. Simone, Franco, Miscellanea di studi e ricerche sul Quattrocento francese , Torino, Giappichelli, Stein, H. Geert H.
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Series I, Studia, 36 , , p. Walters, Lori J. Katharina M.
Wilson, Athens, University of Georgia Press, , p. Glyn S.
Burgess et Robert A. Taylor, Cambridge, Brewer, , p. Actes du colloque Amiens, mars , Greifswald, Reineke, , p. Wisman, Josette A. Franz V.
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